Perfect pitch

November 4, 2019, 12:31 AM · Hi
Anybody know how to practice your ears to perfect pitch (or relative).
Because sometimes i have problem with playing in tune. I need to concentrate so much to hear perfect tone. Thanks for answers.

Replies (44)

November 4, 2019, 2:15 AM · If you had the "gift" of perfect pitch I think you'd know about it already, and it's not a thing you're likely to acquire with practice except in a rudimentary way. Relative pitch is another matter. I'm sure singing in a choir helped mine a lot
November 4, 2019, 3:48 AM · You don't want perfect pitch. Trust me. You don't.

I don't have perfect pitch myself. But one of my friends has perfect pitch and finds it difficult to play in orchestras that tune to 442 or 443, let alone to Baroque tunings.

Edited: November 4, 2019, 4:47 AM · There may just be a confusion of words here, I think Daniel is simply asking advice on how to learn to better recognize when something is out of tune. For me personally this is one of the few things I am just naturally good at. But, I think, listening a lot to good in-tune playing can help, as well as playing the passage in question on the *gasp* piano (yes I know this is not pythagorean or harmonically perfect, etc).
November 4, 2019, 4:53 AM · There are apps for ios which claim to help improve a person's pitch recognition. One's that I've experimented with would play a drone and then have a second drone join in and ask the user whether the second one was lower or higher than the first.

One great way to develop good intonation for ourselves is to use a tuner (I have the Korg TM40) which can emit a sound in addition to using a meter. Set it to a certain pitch, for example D would be great to start with for violinists, and use it as a drone. Then play every D on your instrument and listen carefully for the interaction between what you're playing and what you're hearing. If they clash, then change where your finger is on the string a bit higher or lower until the clashing goes away. If you're very close you should hear "beats" - the pulsing in the sounds which results when two pitches are very close to being identical. As you move your finger either higher or lower very gradually and the beats will either get faster or slower. If they get faster reverse the direction your finger is moving. If the beats get slower, keep moving in that direction until the beats are gone completely.

The finger movement I'm suggesting is in fractions of millimeters and done very slowly while listening to the drone from the tuner.

Once you can play each D in tune, then play up the D major scale using full bows for each tone, and listen very carefully to how your notes on the violin react with the drone from the tuner. The notes which should sound harsh would be the E, F#, B and C#. The notes which should sound nice together are the G, A and D.

Play the scale in 2 octaves and notice how the further away from the drone pitch your sound gets (as in the second octave) the harder it is to tell how harsh or how nice the pitches blend.

Do the same with A on the tuner, then E, then G, then other pitches as well.

What you're asking to do will take a long time before you feel completely satisfied with how well in tune you play (some people never feel completely satisfied!) but every day you should feel more confident in your intonation, and your playing should improve as well.

In the absence of a tuner producing a drone tone, your violin itself is a great resource. When you have your finger placed correctly for a G, D, A or E, the open string of the same pitch should ring with sympathetic vibrations. Practice randomly playing those pitches in different octaves, once you've tuned your open strings properly, being sure to make slight adjustments in your finger placement, sliding higher or lower, until you hear the open string start to ring.

In first position, to find where to place your 4th finger on a string to match the next higher open string, simply play the string with your 4th finger on it and then play the next higher open string. They should match. If they don't slide the 4th finger up or down until the sounds match. Once your 4th finger is placed correctly then try playing down the scale to the open string, listening to hear whether it sounds like the bottom 5 notes of a scale (sol, fa, mi, re, do).

Patient and persistent practice on this, over many days/weeks/months will yield great success in improving your intonation and your listening skills.

November 4, 2019, 5:58 AM · @Jean - discussions of pitch perception always fascinate me! I'm not sure playing or listening to the piano is likely to help train the ear in relative pitch. After all, it's theoretically possible to become a highly efficient pianist with no pitch perception at all. On string and wind instruments, once your technique is fairly well established it's also tempting to place the fingers unthinkingly. Quite a lot of players seem to do that! When singing, however, I don't think it would be possible to pitch a note even approximately without instant aural feedback and adjustment, so you're forced to think about tuning all the time.
November 4, 2019, 6:06 AM · I agree with Jean. Learning to play your violin with good intonation really has nothing to do with "perfect pitch." It has to do with recognizing how scales and intervals should sound and how they are fingered on the violin. The best thing the OP can do is find a teacher who can show him the basics -- how to find resonances ("ring tones") and how to establish a scale using wide whole steps and narrow half steps.
November 4, 2019, 6:39 AM · Thanks all for answers.
Edited: November 4, 2019, 7:50 AM · Hi Danielle,

I have perfect pitch, and I recently wrote a rough draft of an essay that I will post on my website soon. All I will say is that it is not the end all be all. It is unnecessary in my opinion if good intonation on your instrument is the goal. I've learned a lot over the years about intonation, and I continue to survey and ask many of my colleagues about it. In short, it is imperative IMHO that one develops a keen sense of relative pitch and how to match your pitches to one another while always knowing what key you are playing in at each given moment. That's my short answer. :)
Good luck!

Edited: November 4, 2019, 8:23 AM · Since "perfect pitch" gets confused with "perfect intonation", I prefer to say "absolute pitch"( in French, the "absolute ear"..)

Absolute Pitch removes the need to listen to what others are doing, and can lead to less-than-perfect intonation!

"establish a scale using wide whole steps and narrow half steps"
Agreed, Paul, but there are sometimes delicious moments when the opposite is better...

Edited: November 6, 2019, 2:43 PM · I've got perfect pitch and I couldn't even Said what was the note's name two years berfore
For getting it, you shall, without looking to the piano try to gess the note or you can do it a with an application on IPad,etc...,and guess the note again.
Just , remember it took me two Years working on it(very long)
Hope I've help


Edited: November 4, 2019, 2:00 PM · Real perfect pitch for a string player will be more a problem than an asset, and can't be learned or trained anyway. What is more important is learning good intonation, which involves interval recognition, tuning to open strings at the beginning stage, double stops later. I was in the orchestra once for a singer that had perfect pitch. She never needed a cue note in rehearsal. A very useful and impressive skill.
November 5, 2019, 12:13 AM · My daughter can sing any notes out of thin air. It's a cool party trick and it has its usefulness but for playing violin, it took many years to convince her that having a beautiful intonation isn't about playing every single note perfectly on pitch. I think she finally got the point after listening youtube videos of someone who has perfect pitch and has a rather awkward sense of intonation.

Singing really helps.

November 5, 2019, 7:19 PM · I have thought about this too. I'm a self taught beginner, with little musical talent.

I've tried to keep my tuner attached to the scroll, but it's too awkward to see while I try to practice and keep a firm grip on the violin.

I just downloaded a tuner application on my pc ( to see how this might work for me. I'm thinking I can watch the pc screen while practicing scales and see how close I can get to the correct notes.

November 6, 2019, 12:24 AM · Dale don't only look at tuner. First try to tune your tone by your ear then only check if you are playing in tune.
Edited: November 6, 2019, 4:25 AM · When you play D on the A string, you don't just hear it, you literally feel the violin resonating in sympathy (of course, if your D string isn't in tune, you are screwed!). Start there, then play A, B, C#, D over and over again until you are happy with what you are hearing. Do A,B,C,D too, so your second finger doesn't become too rigid. (include the E so your pinky gets some practice). Try Schradiek #1 major and minor on each string. Look for sympathetic Gs on the D and the E strings, and the pinky's notes will create sympathetic resonance on the string above. Then expand to wider ranges. Note where your fingers go, especially for the B - it's further from the nut than you think. My Bb and B were both flat until I realised my error. I never use a tuner. A piano is permissible, but not if you play it so much you spend too much time away from the violin.

The arguments for stretching down from the pinky to the first finger rather than up from the first finger to the pinky should maybe also take into account that stretching down from the pinky might prevent your B from getting too flat.

November 6, 2019, 4:21 AM · To build a scale and sense of pitch (as in relatively in terms of interval), one should start with octave, fifth, then mediant, followed by supertonic, subdominant, the rest.

You don't expect to draw a nice square freehand. I mean, you can, with practice, but I'm sure that's not the most efficient way...

November 6, 2019, 4:54 AM · If a person wants to use a tuner that's easy to see, D'Addario makes the NS Micro Violin Tuner which attaches to the body just to the left of the neck, looking down on the violin from the top. That way it doesn't interfere with either the left hand or the bow. It can be used to tune the open strings of the violin and then switched off or it can be left on and the violinist can visibly check whether his/her impression of good intonation is accurate or not. It turns itself off automatically after 10 minutes. It can also serve as a visual metronome.
November 6, 2019, 8:15 AM · As far as I can see nobody has yet actually defined 'perfect pitch' to clarify the discussion. As I understand it, it is the ability to recognize the name of a note that is heard. A past (very accomplished) teacher once commented to me that the problem with players that have perfect pitch is that they 'always play out of tune', for the reasons alluded to above (your perfect pitch may not be the orchestra's tuning).

However, there is one aspect of perfect pitch that is particularly relevant to playing violin that I have not seen discussed that I recognized in a stand partner. If you have perfect pitch you can far more easily find notes at the high-end of the fingerboard. Thus, whereas I would use tricks to find 'that high C' (such as the B harmonic or straddling up the fingerboard), he would just play it. The downside of that ability is that he never needed to learn the fingerboard at high positions, the note interrelation between each string, and ended up generally looping up and down the E string.

Edited: November 6, 2019, 9:25 AM · In an old thread, I had to defend the idea that Absolute Pitch is not limited to musicians (amateur or professional). Two examples:
- A complete beginner (6yo) who sang from memotry vthe dialing tone of her phone perfectly before being told that it was an A=440 (here in France).
- A non-musician friend who said that the squeak of our gate was the same as the ping on our microwave. It was.

So? It is a permanent memory of the pitch of a tone, and according to a friend with AP, independent of timbre.

Acquired Absolute Pitch can be learned:
I hear the sound of my violin A in my head with great precision, but it doesn't help tuning another violin. So, timbre-dependent...

In fact, through alternating concert pitch (440Hz) with the bandoneon in a tango quintet (445Hz), I could tune to either from memory (timbre again). The same applied to pianos, which I play too. Years later, this particular memory has faded.

Edited: November 6, 2019, 8:58 AM · There are two aspects to intonation: Being able to hear it and being able to land it (also known as target practice). When it comes to the nosebleed section of the fingerboard, I think the latter issue starts to dominate, because the demands on accuracy are severe and because the finite width of your fingertips becomes increasingly problematic. I don't have trouble hearing the notes, but landing them out of the blue is another thing. I suspect Elise's stand partner was just extra good at that, which may have nothing to do with his or her "perfect pitch" status.
I think also that "perfect pitch" goes beyond being able to tell that something in a certain frequency range is an "A" but being able to tell, without hearing any immediate reference frequency, that a pitch at 443 Hz is a little sharp for an A.
Edited: November 6, 2019, 9:10 AM · @Elise. That's very interesting. It's clear that someone with perfect pitch should be able to play the correct note in the lower positions where the hand position can be referenced to landmarks on the body of the violin, but to immediately hit the right pitch at the very top of the fingerboard surely calls for superb finger placement skills also.

Another thing I'd say (this being a favourite hobbyhorse of mine..) is that since perfect pitch is essentially untrainable there must exist musically untrained people who possess perfect pitch in spite of the fact that they are unable to name the notes - maybe don't even know that notes can have names. I'd love to discover an untrained singer who from memory of a recorded song can sing it at the exact pitch of the performer.

Rats - Adrian and Paul got in before me! To put it another way, the ability to name a note is a useful way for someone to demonstrate their perfect pitch, but is not a requisite skill.

November 6, 2019, 9:26 AM · Anyhow, I'm just jealous. Bad grapes!
November 6, 2019, 9:38 AM · Paul wrote: "I suspect Elise's stand partner was just extra good at that, which may have nothing to do with his or her "perfect pitch" status."

The conversation went the other way: I noticed how he was reaching into the gerbil zone and had the inspiration to ask if he had perfect pitch. I only found out after. But in any case, perhaps other PP players could comment here if this is an advantage? Maybe it should be a separate topic...

November 6, 2019, 10:22 AM · It's like science: no-one loves us for being right!
Edited: November 6, 2019, 3:31 PM · I have perfect pitch and don't believe it is necessary to have in order to play in tune, however there are some major advantages that no one seems to be addressing.

For me, perfect pitch means that one can accurately imagine multiple pitches simultaneously. Depending on how strong your ear is, you can read entire chamber music scores or even fugues and enjoy the music just by reading it. Complex chords (with more than 4 different notes) are easy to understand. I am also able to compose on the go without paper or the instrument, which is very handy. Imagine that you are able to listen to all your favorite pieces without using technology, and furthermore can manipulate the timing and interpretation to your liking.

Now of course it's more difficult to play baroque music at 415. I am also learning both B flat and A clarinet and I won't lie it's a nightmare for people with perfect pitch. What people don't understand is that even though it's a nightmare, it's still physically possible for perfect pitchers to do these things, whereas I believe a non perfect pitcher is physically unable to hear entire scores accurately.

Edited: November 6, 2019, 1:51 PM · @ James. Thanks for another fascinating perspective. However, speaking as one who has no perfect pitch but a pretty well developed relative pitch and musical memory I'm not convinced my disadvantage is as great as you imply. The ability to read a score accurately is surely a separate skill, possessed by many conductors who don't possess absolute pitch. I have known distinguished musicians in this category who definitely did seem able to "hear" entire scores.

When I follow the score of a piece I know I hear pretty much the entire work in my head (of course depending on its complexity), but when I attempt to define its pitch vocally I usually fail - it seems to "float" in a kind of mind space in which the actual pitch is undefined but harmonic relationships are preserved. However, with an unfamiliar piece I'm all at sea. This I'm sure is where people with your ability have a real advantage, but I doubt that many people with perfect pitch can sight-read a score well enough to capitalise on that.

November 6, 2019, 1:59 PM · I seem to be like Steve.
To piece together the sounds of a score in my head, I have to rely on intervals, so it's much slower than for some one with absolute pitch.

But when I'm choosing a score I can nonetheless play it in my head, chords'n'all. With a fair sprinkling of wrong notes!

Edited: November 6, 2019, 2:05 PM · .

Plenty perfect pitchers haven't pitched a perfect game/
in dugout competitions all about the hall-of-fame/
until they grip the stitches, wishes simply sounding lame/
when they leave the ditch and take the mound, they make their name/

I have heard perfect pitch claimed by bad players and I've heard it claimed by good (I really enjoyed James' playing he has posted here).

November 6, 2019, 2:06 PM · You raise a good point about conductors not needing perfect pitch to accurately read a score. I guess though that my opinions about perfect pitch relate more to the enjoyment and convenience of having it, rather than what it can achieve in the practical world, since I don't believe there is any profession which relies on having perfect pitch.
November 6, 2019, 2:08 PM · Fascinating James - so you propose that perfect pitcher's can read the music and hear it at the same time - sans instrument? Ever since I could read music I could do that, and I assumed this was typical for everyone who could read music?

Now, physically translating what I hear in my head into the instrument is another matter entirely...

I don't believe I have perfect pitch, and, I find orchestral tuning to be a total nightmare, I'm constantly wincing with how out of tune everyone is (including myself, ha). Ever since I was little, I could mimic the same pitch as the vacuum cleaner, or do similar things as with Adrian's examples. Even with all of my musical "training" (such as it is as a returnee), I still cannot name the notes as they are played. (I can reproduce them on my instrument though.) Sound is quite the interesting phenomenon.

I'm still confused as to what "perfect pitch" is given all of the examples in these posts...

November 6, 2019, 3:57 PM · As a beginner, I want something that would help me improve on hitting the proper notes. It would be nice to practice with a computer program that makes a game of it - trying to compete with myself and others at the same skill level. Something like Guitar Hero for violin? I'll check Activision's web site to see if this exists.
November 6, 2019, 4:37 PM · Absolute pitch does not help me hit high notes "out of the blue". But it does help me determine if the note is right or not.
In some situations absolute pitch is a burden. I found it really difficult to play the violin solos in Mahler 4 - on a "violin in D". I can't understand how players of transposing instruments like the clarinet cope.
It is similarly difficult for me to play in "baroque tuning" of 415 Hz. I have to think of it as a transposing instrument. Luckily my baroque group plays at 440.
It is also problematic sometimes when singing in a choir. Sometimes the conductor will decide that a certain piece sounds better in a different key. That means I have to transpose on the fly (the other singers too off course, but they don't notice it).
Intonation is something different than absolute pitch. We all have to adjust intonation to the context. There cannot be one true pitch for a note. A F# in a D major scale is not the same as a F# played in a double stop with open A. Both of them are F#, both are correct but they are not the exact same pitch. And when playing with others we have to adjust our intonation to our co-players and to the changing of chords around us.
November 7, 2019, 8:24 AM · Bo wrote: "Absolute pitch does not help me hit high notes "out of the blue". But it does help me determine if the note is right or not."

But that is the whole point - many of us have little clue if we are on the right note which is why we need scaffolds of various kinds. Once you are there you KNOW it.

November 7, 2019, 9:51 AM · Not when it's Webern...
November 7, 2019, 10:18 AM · The other day we had to hit a high loud Eb out of the blue. I found what worked for me was to shift into 4th position in the passage before it: then it was much easier to find.
November 7, 2019, 10:33 AM · Dale Watkins asked if there was a computer program or something that could help with learning pitch. My teacher recommended a phone application to me called Perfect Ear which I have used with some success. It's not like Guitar Hero, sadly, but it does have a scoring element which makes it feel a little competitive.
November 7, 2019, 11:53 AM · --Gordon;-- That isolated Eb on the E string I usually find as D#, regular third position, with 4th finger slightly extended. An Eb another octave up is a different story, Maybe find the double E harmonic and pull back 1/4 inch. Hitting isolated ultra-high notes, with no opportunity for preparation, is my life-time nemesis, probably a major reason I never won a real pro symphony audition.
November 7, 2019, 12:12 PM · What James is talking about -- reading through fugues -- I suspect this requires mental abilities that go well beyond perfect pitch. I'd be curious if what he describes is a common experience among those who claim to have (read: can demonstrate that they have) perfect pitch.
November 8, 2019, 12:05 PM · I don't find that reading multi-layer music in one's head, with or without a "perfect" starting point, is very common, perhaps a quarter of the musicians I know.
November 8, 2019, 1:02 PM · All of them pianists I expect! In most music I imagine it's the note patterns and chord shapes that good pianists recognise rather than each individual note, but those with perfect pitch may have come to associate each line and space of the stave with a sound rather than just a letter. It's hard enough to understand the processes going on in one's own head, but how others hear music is a mystery wrapped in an enigma
November 8, 2019, 2:40 PM · Learning the piano did indeed work wonders for my sight-reading skill. It's just that piano teachers value it, so there was sight-reading at nearly every lesson.
Edited: November 9, 2019, 3:09 AM · A bit off topic, but do pianists when sight-reading have a conscious image of what they're about to hear, or do they just let their fingers take care of it? Of course the same applies to the violin, that one can bypass the listening process and let auto-pilot take over, but ideally I'm sure we should conjure up an impression of each note, interval or sequence of notes an instant before fingering
November 9, 2019, 6:42 AM · Joel, you're much better than me, but I find that "finding" high notes out of the blue is greatly helped by practicing single octave scales on a single string, in particular the E-string. For example getting to a high G with the first finger (required, say, because the phrase goes up from there). Find A in third position, then find C in fifth position, still on the first finger, and then "simply" finger arpeggio C - E - G fingered 1-3-1 which is a standard move in those scales on a single string. So, you basically mentally already play some structured notes in order to get to the note you need to find. I suppose this is a well known technique, I am sure it is mentioned by Simon Fischer.
Edited: November 10, 2019, 2:05 AM · Re ~ Perfect Pitch, Period! (44)

Hoping to not offend anyone, I've had perfect pitch identification all my life in single file digital single notes in C Major & when studying with Jascha Heifetz, in all scales & especially thirds, fourths, 5ths, octaves, fingered octaves, tenth's & btw, best to hear it in my head, nail it (the pitch) set it w/ pinky then Reach Back to the lower note of the tenth with the 1st finger. In a different Discussion here titled Kreutzer, I got involved & in so doing, did reveal the Case of Jascha Heifetz, after the first few months of our original Heifetz Violin Master Classes (3 days per week, 6/7 hrs a day) with the 7 of us, upon Mr. Heifetz asking, 'Who has perfect pitch?', all 7 hands raised up! Heifetz proceeded to administer his 'JH Perfect Pitch Test' on each of the 7 of us, individually, sitting at the Piano (of Brooks Smith, JH's Violin Master Class pianist, yet in position none of us could see notes he, Heifetz, was playing at the (I must add) Perfectly Pitched A=440 at that time in the '60's, (& now moved up to what is known as international concert A, with A = 442. All said, Jascha Heifetz, certainly, unquestionably had a perfect ear, perfect intonation, w/varied intonation to highlight specific styles in the music he was at the moment, playing & recording with major orchestras of the world.

After exhaustive pitch tests lasting well over 1 & 1/3 hours or more for each of we 7, Mr. Heifetz, very coldly (as a scientist) computed his results of our varied ranges of pitch and How well each could hear the Root of a Note or double stops, in a range of Easy to Most Difficult (1 to 5) with 5 being Most Difficult double stops to hear/play in perfected intonation or discern fused intonation was Not a Perfect Blend in Thirds or single file digital scales, nor corresponding arpeggios & the like, etc. ~

Of the Seven, only Two in the expert view of Heifetz, had authentic "Perfect Pitch" who could easily replicate The distinctive Root Note by hearing it in one's inner ear & simply playing (aka, nailing) the Note perfectly Without any blocks of chord building or using triads to climb from a base note to an in between note - a third up & repeated safely again to reach the highest position of the goal note, Cold Turkey!! As stated by a few here: either one is born with the Gift of organic unexplained pitch identification immediately upon hearing given note's in one's mind (ear, head) & going there, or taught
relative pitch & very sensitive intonation without any Shortcuts, folks! Great familiarity on 'The Board' practising scales in a darkened room with utterly No Distractions, for years & exactly 'In Tune' is imperative requiring superb & near un-natural patience of a teacher who hears any slightest variation of each 'white' note in a C Major single file Scale & not covered up by vibrato or 'counterfeit' vibrating which is initially coaxing a hint vibration to move the planted down next note touches Up or a speck Down to be in a C Major 'tune line' with inner C Major generic calm= as perfected as is possible!

This subject is massive and yet emanates not from individual "Takes" on an A=442 root A, but rigid adherence to A = 442. Btw, and critically important for honest learners of perfect intonation off of YouTube: Please, oh please, 'buyer beware' of YouTube violinists unless Jascha Heifetz or N. Milstein,
intonation & especially off recordings which were made Before the digital Era; i.e., on 78's or even 33 & 1/3 rpm recordings which most frequently & wi/superb violinists as David Oistrakh, were sped by recording engineer's to not lose the strict margins of Disc time thusly & when speeding tempi up to
create a touch more time to fit a full movement of a violin concerto in or on Side I, or II whichever a specific recording needed to be produced to The Click equaling Money = artistry pauses &/or delayed last note placement to grant artistic 'rightness' which more than less audio recording engineers oft disregarded which was & is musically sinful. Would Michaelangelo have left off a curve in exposed shoulders due to Supervisor's saying, 'we're over our budget so please stop fussing as we haven't any more time?" H**l No! It's the Same with deliberately sped up tempi which raises pitch higher & most of listener's-discerning violinists get trapped after listening to slightly higher pitch frequencies which lower a keenly developed sense of pitch/intonation to a lull which starts becoming undetectable, dulling unique mood & flavour ~

Now 2 hours and a half later, I hope these thoughts & observations from a concertising violinist who has obsessed about perfected intonation all my life, sheds a little bit of light on 'Perfect Pitch' Formal &/or amended to fuse blend with numerous orchestras who tune, sadly, to at least 4 varying A's which as a Pro Violinist one learns to be 'political-musically for now correct', but suffers so inside if a Low Db needs lowered harmonic accompaniment instrumentation & from a seasoned pianist who knows pedaling can mute a too sharp F# or lower a Db which in Chausson's Poeme, suaves a cultured audience's more compassionate sensitivities below a concert-going "Face" of and before the Public ~

These little slices of over 45 years observations & Milstein colored culture & rarified musical nuance's are clues to ponder longer than it will take to twice read this!

Perhaps an International Forum on Intonation - both American & European needs Attention in 2020?!

More if further replies but I shall take a Rest after writing in on another Blog on Saturday, 11-9-19, re 'Was your First Instrument other than the Violin?', now 'typed out', yet I need to go to my fiddle to think & apply written down knowledge here into practical application!!

A Thought ~ No matter where any on this forum are, striving to find Truth in Intonation is oft found if the violin one plays resonate's with a ring & natural vibration minus vibrato. Even touches of too much oscillation disturb a core root of one note which has a domino effect on the next note & etc. ~ Later, vibrato can be beautifully added on as fresh "paint" which isn't painted over Old Paint to cover up faulty wall structure/s. An allegory seems appropriate for lover's of playing without creating feelings of 'maybe these ideas are too advanced for me' - Not at All. I guess some need to Fast from mechanical tuner's for awhile or go back to using the perennial pitch fork!!

With warm musical greetings to all ~

Elisabeth Matesky *


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