Although there is some debate, tuning the violin to A440 seems to be generally accepted. As a beginner, it is relatively easy to set my tuner to 440 and pull the bow across the A string until the little light in the middle turns green, and I would imagine this is how most beginners start. However, this led me to question how violins were originally tuned in the 16th century - and I don't mean what frequency or another. They would not have had that nice electronic device to help them, and would have tuned by ear. Does anyone know what they used as their reference? For example was it a tuning fork, or some other similar device?
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