REVIEW: ‘Carl Flesch Distilled: A User-Friendly Approach to the Flesch Scale System.’

May 28, 2021, 3:13 PM · One of the stranger aspects of mastering the violin has always been the ubiquitous scale. The underlying cause of failure in this arena by so many is the widespread misunderstanding that the scale is a kind of basic exercise that warms one up for the meatier aspects of playing. In fact, scales are the integration of all skills of playing and are, therefore, not only extremely complex, but something to be analyzed and learnt in a very systematic and careful way. It is not for nothing that Heifetz invariably judged hapless young interviewees not on their performance of Paganini, but their rendition of scales.

For those lucky enough to go to a teacher with the requisite knowledge, scales have never been a problem. Sadly, it has often been the case that a teacher sets ‘A major’ for this week's work with little or no advice and the hapless student has to make the best of whatever scale manual she has been ordered to buy. In recognition of this problem, Simon Fischer published his seminal work, Scales, on how to practice all aspects of scale so that they can finally be a satisfying and enjoyable part of a violinist’s life. After this, one does begin to wonder if another book of, or even about scales is actually necessary?

Bearing this context in mind, I decided to take a look at Mark Rush’s new book Carl Flesch Distilled and see if it genuinely had anything new or worthwhile to offer. Putting aside my perverse pleasure in the title, which makes me think of a nice whiskey, I think the answer is "Yes." Aside from the distillation process, the cover also explains that it is "A User-Friendly Approach to the Flesch Scale System." That piqued my interest...

Flesch distilled

As far as I am aware, the Flesch was not originally intended to be a comprehensive scale manual for beginners or even intermediate level students. Rather, his real goal was to create a super-efficient means for extremely high level players and professionals to work through a necessary amount of daily technique to "maintain" (of course development is a component) their technique within the strictures of limited time and much repertoire to cover. Somehow this original aim seems to have been changed over time. Perhaps it was because he used the word "students" that somehow caused the book to morph into something it wasn’t really intended to be: a beginner’s scale manual. We have to bear in mind that Flesch's "students" were world-class soloists such as Hassid, Goldberg and Neveu. I think even Mark Rush, who is clearly knowledgeable about the whole thing, also seems to follow this assumption which surprised me a little.

However, what Rush has done is to make the work of Flesch clearly a scale manual that works from a upper-beginner level up to professional level (with some omissions that also exist in the original Flesch.) At the same time, he has successfully retained the important aspects of Flesch’s pedagogy and has added some minor "tweaking" in some places to make this transformation rock-solid. For example, he quite sensibly advises the beginner to start with the key of G rather than C and has proposed that some scales might more practically be started in first position rather than 6th, 7th and so on.

The work itself is a very nicely put together spiral-bound book with beautifully printed pages. Full marks! In his fairly brief introduction, Rush introduces the historical background of the original Flesch, the reasons why it had to be de-cluttered, why he has made certain small (very logical) changes (as above) and offers a few hints on practicing in succinct and easy to understand language.

The practicing advice is really rather limited. Basic things like starting off slowly with separate bows, without and then with vibrato and so on. He does offer the acceleration exercise as an important practice method, which is commendable. I did have a small caveat here. As he describes it, this is the Galamian acceleration exercise with the beginning notes of the scale exactly as he taught it. I am well aware that this system is universal and the Soviet school teaches something similar which has nothing to do with Galamian. Nonetheless, I would have liked to have seen a small nod to that venerable master in the introduction of this excellent practice method.

So, that’s about it. If you want to self-study using the ideas on intonation handed down through Casals and DeLay and have a slew of study methods and routines applicable to scales at your disposal, then Simon Fischer’s "Scales" is the book for you. However, if you just want a superbly laid out scale manual that preserves the beauty and power of Flesch’s ideas on scales, then this is certainly the book for you. The issues of shifting, intonation and the intricate aspects of playing scales well will have to be entrusted to another resource such as a fine teacher. Nothing wrong with that at all!

In particular, this book will be a huge relief for the many teachers all over the world who teach using the Flesch method and are just exhausted by having to de clutter and rearrange according to the current needs of a beginner or lower-intermediate player. In fact, if you do start out the Flesch System with this book, you will never need to purchase the original Flesch System books. This one is just more user-friendly and will last a life-time.

As such, Rush has done violinists a service by creating a niche scale manual that will make a lot of people’s lives much easier!

("Carl Flesch Distilled" is available by clicking here, and readers of this blog post who wish the purchase the book can get a 20 percent discount by entering this code at the publishers website: VLNcom071109.)

You might also like:


May 28, 2021 at 10:49 PM · Buri, nice review. Thank you for sharing.

May 29, 2021 at 12:49 AM · Thank you Stephen, for this fine review (and discount coupon). I just ordered the book. After the 20% coupon discount, the $45 book still cost me $44.64 due to a $4.50 "handling" charge and $4.15 shipping cost. But your review of the accessibility and value of this book, along with the spiral binding, mixes with my new determination to get serious as a student of violin. So I consider this a good investment into the road ahead of me.

I confess I've hardly ever even tried to play scales. They seemed very boring and, being mostly "self-taught," nobody ever pressed me to face them. 6 years ago I decided to become a musician and violinist, so I taught myself to read music and found all the notes on the fingerboard and then just launched into "easy" repertoire. I actually have got pretty good at sight-reading if one only considers the finding of the notes, but I never taught myself counting so I still sound bad despite hacking through many pages. I had 5 lessons in 2019 with a teacher I've decided is perfect for me, but when covid hit I wasn't interested in zoom lessons so lapsed back into stagnation even though I kept playing home alone. She had suggested scales and given me some assignments, but as a cranky old adult-learner I quickly fell away from the scalebook and went back to repertoire.

What motivates me to finally "get serious?" The discussions here at have been a rich source provoking self-reflection and appreciation for the discipline of real violinists. Scales seem pretty fundamental to the development of the real violinists here. As does precise counting of time rather than the approximations I've been doing by just swaying and doubling bow speed whenever there's a flag added to the note. So I knew one day I'd have to face the metronome and the scale book. And when my teacher told me she's not coming back to my locale (she just graduated Yale) but moving on to Julliard, I decided keeping her is worth facing the online lesson format I've avoided, so I sent her money for 10 zoom lessons, first one is coming up Monday.

But when I stumbled on videos of her senior recital and a gorgeous rendition she did of a Biber sonata (one of my very favorite composers), I fell to tears and considered quitting altogether as a crass amateur who'll never approach the fineness of playing she has already achieved in youth:

Biber: Sonata No. 5 in E minor:

Tutti Soli: Music for (Virtual) Violin Ensemble:

But I DO want to become a musician! And I want this teacher who has the orientation around baroque music and technique, and who has shown such patience and generosity to bother with me at all. So I've taken out my metronome and started counting. I've ordered the Carl Flesch Distilled scale book so warmly reviewed here by Buri. And I am determined to redouble my efforts and put in real discipline to become worthy of her time so I can break out of my stagnation and start to make music.

May 29, 2021 at 01:00 AM · You are a musician!

Have you read Atomic Habits? James Clear makes an excellent point in it. When we say ‘I am x’ or ‘I am Y’ all we are actually saying is that we have the habit of doing that particular action consistently.

BTW I think you would get a lot of benefit from a video by Julia Bushkova in which she explains two octave scales without shifting. If you can’t find the link I’ll track it down later. She is pretty much the best teacher on youtube right now (the other is Daniel Kurganov) and all her stuff is worth careful study.

Best of luck on your journey,


May 29, 2021 at 12:21 PM · Good review, thank you!

Will Wilkin, I agree with Buri, you are a musician! I think it's human nature to constantly compare ourselves with others, and sometimes that can be a bad thing. We can get arrogant when see someone "not as good" as us ("oh, they're still playing Twinkle after 5 months? It only took me a week, so I have more talent than 99 percent of the population") or discouraged when we see someone who is more advanced ("what? Pagannini at 3 years old is the new standard? My Go Tell Aunt Rhody must be worthless so I'm not a musician!").

Someone once told me "Becky, there will always be someone better than you, there will always be someone worse than you. Don't worry about them, just play!" Seems so simple and generic, but many times when I'm around other musicians, I am reminded of those simple words of my friend.

Also, I am not sure what your rhythm issues are, but I have recommended a few drum lessons for my rhythmically challenged students and it has done wonders for their playing! Maybe drum lessons might help.

May 30, 2021 at 11:31 AM · Thanks Rebecca, of course you're right to remind me that I play for the joy of the journey and comparisons to others don't help.

Thanks Buri for your kind words too. I've also ordered the book Atomic Habits because I am ready to take better control of my use of time and acquire habits of practice and living that will bring better results!

And now...back to my new way of practicing with explicit counting of the beats to more accurately play note values!

May 30, 2021 at 06:07 PM · thank you Buri, interesting and informative review.

This article has been archived and is no longer accepting comments.

Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email is made possible by...

Shar Music
Shar Music

Yamaha Silent Violin
Yamaha Silent Violin

Pirastro Strings
Pirastro Strings

Dimitri Musafia, Master Maker of Violin and Viola Cases
Dimitri Musafia, Master Maker of Violin and Viola Cases

ArmSymphony AI Violin Competition
ArmSymphony AI Violin Competition

Find a Summer Music Program
Find a Summer Music Program Business Directory Business Directory

AVIVA Young Artist Program

Antonio Strad Violin

Bay Fine Strings Violin Shop

Bobelock Cases


Los Angeles Violin Shop

Nazareth Gevorkian Violins

Metzler Violin Shop

Leatherwood Bespoke Rosin



Johnson String Instrument and Carriage House Violins

Potter Violins

String Masters

Bein & Company

Annapolis Bows & Violins

Laurie's Books

Discover the best of in these collections of editor Laurie Niles' exclusive interviews. Interviews Volume 1 Interviews Volume 1, with introduction by Hilary Hahn Interviews Volume 2 Interviews Volume 2, with introduction by Rachel Barton Pine